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Flora And Fauna Of Kerala

Kerala is a beautiful state located in the southern part of the country. This state is known to enjoy a wide array of flora and fauna. The natural habitat of this state encompasses evergreen forests, highland deciduous, partially evergreen forests in its various parts. Kerala experiences tropical humid climate but due to changes in elevation and its terrain, the land of this place is considered to be highly significant biodiversity in the world. The major biodiverse area of the state lies in the eastern districts amidst evergreen forests. Such biodiverse tract is also available in the coastal region. Here, this region is under cultivation and only sparse wildlife is registered here. This state boasts of more than nine thousand square kilometers of natural forests. About 7,500 square kilometers area is under the cover of non plantation area. About 3, 400 square kilometers area covers semi evergreen and wet evergreen forests. Dry deciduous forest covers an area of approximately 100 square kilometers and tropical moist region is sprawled in an area approximately 4000 square kilometers. Shola forests that are also referred to as the temperate region are available at high elevations covering about 100 square kilometers. About 24 percent area of this state is covered by these forests. Two wetland areas that are considered to be listed in Ramsar Convention are also located here, namely, Vembanad-Kol and Lake Sasthamkotta. The state also boasts of several protected areas that also encompasses Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.


The windward mountains located to the east of Kerala covers tropical dry and moist forests. This is a part of Western Ghats and is known to house rich flora like sonokeling (Indian Rosewood), anjili, Cassia, mullumurikku and many others forming a dense cover of trees. More than thousand species of trees can be seen here. Some common flora includes wild black pepper, calamus rattan palm, bamboo, wild cardamom and Vetiver Grass with rich aroma.



Kerala boasts of a wide array of mammals. Some of these are Asian Elephant ( Zoological Name- Elephas maximus), Leopard (Zoological Name- Panthera Pardus), Bengal Tiger (Zoological Name- Panthera tigris tigris) and Grizzleed Giant Squirrel (Zoological Name- Ratufa macroura). A popular National Park, namely The Silent Valley is situated in Kundali Hills houses several endangered species like Indian Sloth Bear (Zoological Name- Melursus (Ursus) ursinus ursinus), Indian Bison, Lion tailed Macaque and many more. Sommon common fauna species registered in this state are Chital (Zoological name- Axis axis), Flying Squirrel, Indian Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Gray Langur, Common Palm Civet (Zoological Name- Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Swamp Lynx, Some species of monkeys, Boar and many more.


A wide array of reptiles is registered in Kerala like python, King Cobra, viper, crocodiles and species of turtles, majorly in the eastern region.


Approximately 453 bird species are located in this state. Some of them are Oriental Bay Owl, Sri Lanka Frogmouth (Zoological Name- Batrachostomus moniliger), Great Hornbill (Zoological Name- Buceros bicornis), Bulbul (Zoological Name- Pycnnotidae), Peafowl, Black Drongoes, Woodpecker, Kingfisher, Alexandrine Parakeet, some species of ducks, Jungle Fowl, Black hooded Oriole, Indian Cormorant, Hill Mayna, and many more. There are some freshwater fish also in the backwaters of Kerala. Kadu, a stinging catfish is also seen here. Choottachi, a brackishwater species is also registered in the state of Kerala. Many other aquatic species are native of the waterways and lakes in Kerala.

Preservation of Flora and Fauna

Kerala boasts of exotic species of fauna and flora. Forest reserves of this state is depleting as a result of unplanned urbanization. The government has realized the possible repercussions of this condition and they announced several National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries so as to ensure preservation of flora and fauna. Some prominent wildlife sanctuaries in the state of Kerala are Neyyar wildlife sanctuary, Aralam wildlife sanctuary, Periyar Sanctuary, Peppara Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary and many more. Two national parks located here are Eravikulam and Silent National Park.

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