Sikh Architecture Home > Punjab > Culture In Punjab > Sikh Architecture

Sikh Architecture

Sikh Architecture is illustrated by the presence of values for open-mindedness, superb sophistication, ascetic beauty and consistent flowing lines. The presence of progressive style architecture makes their architecture special and stand apart from other styles of architecture. Due to this nature the architecture styles have been utilized for construction of several non religious structures. Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) and Shri Keshgarh Sahib are the classical example of such architecture.

The Sikh religion consists of five prominent historical shrines which are addressed as takhts or throne. These are the places where spiritual temporal decision or the gurmattas as they are called are taken after consent by the gathered people (sangat).   The decisions which are taken with due consensus of the gathered people influence the social, political and cultural life of Sikh followers. The five takhts are located at Talwandi Sabo (Gurdaspur district), Akal Takht (Amritsar), Harmandir Sahib (Patna, Bihar), Damdama Sahib Talwandi Sabo (Gurdaspur district), Kesgarh Sahib, Anandpur (Ropar district) and Hazoor Sahib, Nanded (Maharashtra state). Akal Takhts or the immutable throne assumes a prominent place among the Takhts in Sikh religion owing to its location in Amritsar which is the Vatican City for Sikh followers.

Major Sikh Architectures

Darbar Sahib

As the name suggests Darbar Sahib means the main hall housed in a Gurdwara. This hall consists of the Guru Granth Sahib (Holy Book) placed on a Takth (Throne) in the central position. It also happens to be the place from where Guru addresses the congregation. The term Darbar Sahib is also used to describe the Golden Temple or the Harimandir Sahib. The worship of Darbar Sahib takes place from prayer Hall or Diwan Hall. The Diwan Hall consists of followers who recite hymns and sing religious songs. Guru Granth Sahib is considered as a living Guru and worshipped with great reverence.

The people who gather or attend prayers at the Gurudwara prefer to sit in cross-legged position as this helps them to avoid pointing their legs to any object or person. Also, it may give a feeling of disrespecting the Guru Granth Sahib. Another reason for sitting in this position is that it is regarded as the position of Yogic science.  The Sikh religion considers sitting on the floor as an indication of equality and universal brotherhoodness among people. It also gives a feeling that nobody s above God.

As per the tradition men and women and children sit on opposite sides in the Diwan hall. However, there is also no restriction on the mixed pattern seating in front of the Holy Book (Guru Granth Sahib)

Guru Granth Sahib is given high regards by Sikh people and it is placed over colorfully decorated pillows with beautiful satin cloths wrapped over them. The complete scripture is placed over a high raised platform. The satin cloths completely cover Guru Granth Sahib when it is not read. The beautiful cloths which cover the Guru Granth Sahib are called Romallas.

The Diwan Hall also has a special platform where the musicians play their instruments when the gathered people sing hymns to praise the God. Music is an essential part of any Sikh congregation.  The instruments played along with reciting of Guru Granth Sahib provide a serene and devotional atmosphere in the Diwan Hall. The hymns present in Guru Granth Sahib are termed as Gurbani. Gurbani means “words of the guru”.


The word Gurudwara means an entrance to the path of guru. Followers of the Sikh religion visit the holy place Gurudwara. The religious tolerance of Sikh religion can be understood by the fact that people from all religion are free to visit Gurudwara. The main place of Gurudwara is the Darbar Sahib where the Guru Granth Sahib is placed. There is also a cooking place usually termed as ‘Langar’. Some of the bigger Gurudwara also contains classroom, nursery and library. In a group of buildings a Gurudwara can be recognized from a distance by the presence of tall flagpoles containing the Nishan Sahib (The Sikh flag). The most popular Gurudwara for the Sikh religion is the Golden Temple or Harmandir Sahib located in Amritsar.

Hazur Sahib Nanded

The Sikh religion has five Takhts (Throne). Hazoor Sahib which is also called as Takht Sachkhand Shri Hazur Abchalnagar Sahib is one of the popular takhts ("thrones") of the Sikh religion. This takht is situated on the banks of river Godavari in Nanded district of Maharashtra. This site is the place where revered Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Guru of Sikh religion breathed his last. The Gurudwara which houses in this Takht is termed as Sachkhand or "Realm of Truth".

There is an inner room in the Gurudwara which is called Angitha Sahib. This inner room stands on the site where revered Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in year 1708. This Gurudwara was constructed on the instruction of Maharaja Ranjit Singh between years 1832 to 37.

Hazuri Bagh Baradari

Hazuri Bagh Baradari is basically a baradari constructed using white marble. This Baradari which is located at Hazuri Bagh of Lahore in Pakistan was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the year 1818. The excellent construction of architecture contains some elegant carved marble pillars supported by fragile cusped arches. The Baradari has a central area where the Sikh ruler conducted his court proceedings. This structure has a mirrored ceiling. The pavilion of Baradari contained two storeys which were destroyed by a lightening that stroked in the year 1932.

Keshgarh Qila

The fort constructed by the tenth Master at Anandpur Sahib is the Keshgarh Qila. This fort is presently one of the Takht (Throne) called as Keshgarh Sahib. This Gurudwara has an historic significance and it was among the five forts constructed by Guru Gobind Singh at Amritsar’s Anandpur Sahib for the protection of the followers of Sikh religion. Guru Gobind Singh spent twenty five year of his life at Anandpur Sahib for protecting the Sikhs from Mughal rulers and the Kings of hill region.

The five prominent forts of Anandpur Sahib which are called Panj Qilas constructed by Guru Gobind Singh are listed below.

  • Keshgarh at the center (now a Takhat),
  • Anandgarh (fort of bliss),
  • Lohgarh (fort of steel),
  • Holgarh (fort of color) and
  • Fatehgarh (fort of victory).

These forts are interconnected with each other using underground tunnels and earthworks. This complete work took ten years from the year 1689 when the work began.

Nanak Shahi Bricks

Decorative bricks which were very popular during the Mughal period were called as Nanak Shahi bricks. This type of brick tiles is excellent for strengthening lime concretes in structural walls. But its application in the manufacture of plasters, cornices and mouldings made its application ideal as decorative material.

Qila Mubarak, Patiala

Qila Mubarak which is situated at Patiala is a standard example of classic Sikh Palace architecture. Quila Mubarak was initially constructed as a mud fortress or kachigarhi in year 1763 by Baba Ala Singh. He is regarded as the founder of Patiala dynasty. Qila Mubarak was finally constructed using baked bricks. The Quila has an interior portion called as Quila Androon which was constructed by Maharaja Amar Singh.

Ramgarhia Bunga

Bunga in local language means mansion. Ramgarhia Bunga is a 3 storeyed architectural symphony depicting the grandeur of Sikh architecture. It is situated in the locality of Shri Darbar Sahib in Amritsar district. The only available surviving example of Bunga architecture is the Ramgarhia bunga,  which was constructed by the popular Sikh warrior Jassa Singh Ramgarhia in year 1755. The main motive behind construction of this mansion was to protect the area from foreign invasion.

Samadhi of Ranjit Singh

The Grave of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Samadhi of Ranjit Singh) the great Sikh ruler is situated near the Badshahi Mosque and in Lahore Fort in Lahore district of Pakistan. The construction of Samadhi was commenced by his son, Kharak Singh on the location where his cremation took place. In 1848 his youngest son Duleep Singh completed the construction work.

Takht Sri Damdama Sahib

The Takht Sri Darbar Sahib Damdama Sahib is located in Bathinda district of Punjab. It is among the five Seat of Temporal Authority of Sikhism or Takhts.  This happens to be the place where Guru Gobind Singh (tenth Sikh Guru) wrote the complete Sikh scriptures, The Guru Granth Sahib in year 1705. Apart from this there are four other Takhts Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib, Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Akal Takht.

Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib

Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib is one of the five takths of Sikh religion which is worshiped with utmost reverence by the followers of Sikhism. The Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib is located in Anandpur Sahib in the state of Punjab.

Related Image

Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 1
Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 2
Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 1
Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 2
Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 1
Best Time To Visit Rajasthan 2

Related Topics

Culture in Punjab

The word "Punjab" is composed of two Persian words, 'Panj' meaning five and 'Aab' which means water. The invigorating ....

Cities & Destinations

As far as infrastructure and per capita income is concerned, Punjab ranks among the top most Indian states. The hosiery ....


Punjab is one of the well developed states of ...

About Punjab

The smallest and wealthy state of our country ...