An archaeological site may be defined as a group of sites or places where the evidence of past activities are kept preserved and the evidences may be historic or even contemporary and can be analyzed through the microscope of archaeology representing a part of archaeological proof. These sites vary from the ones having few or no visible remains above the ground in buildings or other structures which are in use at present as well.
It is not easy to delimit any site. Archaeologists often indicate some kind of settlement, however there is a need for defining the limits of human activities going on around this settlement. People can consider even an episode of deposition to be a site for example burial or a hoard may also fall in the category of a site. There are archaeological sites which are undergoing development and may be used as cultural resources and may benefit or disadvantage the areas as far as their development is concerned because of the limits intended. The boundaries of the sites are of great significance and therefore the archaeologist has to be careful in this regard.
The Punjab state comprises of several Archeological Sites as described below:
There is an old site of Harappa called as Sanghol and is close to Fatehgarh Sahib. There is an array of archaeological findings since the excavations had started here. Also referred to as Ucha Pind or high village as it lies on a mound, Sanghol dates back to 7th century as per the writings of Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsang. Such discoveries at Sanghol supported the establishment of an ideal school of art in the Punjab state during ancient times and also threw light on the enriched settlements of Buddhist which existed in this region. The museum of Archaeological Site exhibits a wide range of heritage of old and medieval times.
Archaeological Site Museum, Fatehgarh Sahib (Sanghol)
The museum of Archaeological Site got incorporated in the year 1990 for displaying several old treasures which got discovered at the time of excavations in 1984. This museum situated in the Sanghol village witnesses a wide range of cultural heritage displayed in Harappan pottery as well as jewellery to artifact belonging to the Maurya or Gupta or Sunga dynasties. According to excavations, it had been a Buddhist site during the reign of Kushanas because 2 monasteries along with a Stupa of that period had been uncovered here. There is a seal inscribed with the name of Huna king of Sanghol from the 5th century, might have demolished the Buddhist settlement, had also been recovered.
Archaeological Museum, Rupnagar
The Rupnagar Archeological Museum, situated on the embankments of river Sutlej, has been playing a role of repository of Harappan antiquities, which includes jewelry beads, pottery, metallic implements, painted grey shards and wheeled toys which flourished in first BC millennium. The sophisticated mementos spotted in Rupnagar have been the premier site of Indian archaeology revealing the Harappan culture. The huge mound marking the rich Indus Valley Civilization is an archeological treasure visible in the proximity of museum complex.
Rupnagar had been the premier archaeological site found in independent India for revealing remains of Harappa. Historians as well as Archaeologists stated that that this might have been the oldest towns of the expanding regions of Indus Valley civilization which had crossed the river Sutlej. The successive dynasties of Guptas and Mughals also made their presence felt on this town as per the historical proofs displayed and safely preserved in the Archaeological Museum of Rupnagar.
The rich site of Dholbaha is found to date back to prehistoric times. According to the artifacts found here, scholars opine that Dholbaha is the ancient inhabited region which was discovered when a number of sculptures belonging to ancient and medieval dynasties were spotted near the village.
Several discoveries of Gurjara-Pratiharas along with Paramaras dynasties are available at the Archaeological Museum of Hoshiarpur.
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