Geography Home > Punjab > The Green Granary Of India > Geography


  • Area

50,362 sq km

  • Location

Northwest part of India

  • Latitude

29"30’N - 32"32’N

  • Longitude

73"55’E - 76"50’E

Located in the fertile great North Indian Plain, the state of Punjab has a combined area of 50,362 kmsq.  The state shares its borders with Pakistan on the west, on its northern frontier by the Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh on the east while the south is bordered by Rajasthan and Haryana.

The major area of Punjab falls in the belt of the great north Indian fertile land with an abundance of Alluvial Soil which is irrigated by a wonderful system of rivers and manmade canals. To add to this, a string of mountains strengthen the land. On an average, the height of these is almost 300 meters above sea level. On the southern part, the state and its soil becomes semi arid, which gives way to the Thar. The Shivalik also run along the state and form as the foothills of the great Himalayas.

The land of Punjab is categorized under the seismic zones II, III, and IV.


The climatic conditions of Punjab are identified as an extreme of both the summers and the winters. On an average, the temperature in the state of Punjab varies from -4 degrees and goes up to 49 degrees which explains the extremeness of its climate. The places that are close to the Himalayan ranges are often penetrated by heavy rainfall, while the southern parts of the state are high on temperature and considerably low on rainfall.

Punjab has Three Seasons

  • Summers start in April and continue till late June where the scorching heat takes the temperature beyond 40 C. This is not the high time for tourism in Amritsar.
  • July brings in rain that stays till October and brings down the heat by a considerable degree.
  • November brings in the chill and when it reaches its peak in Late December and Early January, The Temperature drops down to even -4.


Punjab can be further categorized into several categories and regions like:

  • The land on the south of Sutlej is called Malwa. The region of Malwa is long and extensive and houses a total of 11 districts. Several major cities including Patiala, Ludhiana, Sangrur, Bhatinda, Barnala, Firozpur, Moga and Barnala all are found in Marlwa which is extremely rich in cotton crop
  • A part of the historical Punjab including the land of Amritsar, Tarn Taran and Gurdaspur forms the Majha. This region finds place between the Beas, Ravi and Sutlej. This is the place that forms as the centre of Punjab and is credited for being the place where Sikhism originated.
  • Between Sutlej and Beas lie as a region called the Doaba.  The word literally translates to a piece of land that has rivers on two sides. This prosperous and fertile land is the place where the green revolution started in India. This region majorly excels in the produce of wheat. The famous places and cities in the region of Doaba include Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Nawanshahr.

Administrative Subdivisions

Punjab has a total of 22 districts that are further sub divided into Tehsil, Block and etc

  • Amritsar
  • Barnala
  • Bathinda
  • Firozpur
  • Fazilka
  • Fatehgarh Sahib (Sirhind-Fategarh)
  • Faridkot
  • Gurdaspur
  • Hoshiarpur
  • Jalandhar
  • Kapurthala
  • Pathankot
  • Ludhiana
  • Mansa
  • Moga
  • Ajitgarh
  • Muktsar
  • Patiala
  • Rupnagar
  • Sangrur
  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)
  • Tarn Taran

With Chandigarh as its serving Capital, the state of Punjab has a total of 157 town and 22 districts. Some of the major cities in the state of Punjab are Moga, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Nawanshahr, Patiala, Bathinda and Ajitgarh.

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