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Punjab is situated in the north western part of country of India. The state of Punjab has following states in its neighboring towards the north is the Jammu and Kashmir state, towards the western end is Pakistan, in the southern east direction are two states Haryana and Rajasthan while to the north east border is state of Himachal Pradesh. Punjab is also commonly known as a land of five rivers that include Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum, Beas and Chenab.

The state of Punjab has been segregated into two regions one being the Shivalik while the other are the Plains. The Shivalik ranges in the state of Punjab are spread over an area that is 10 kilometers wide and is on the exterior parts of Punjab. This range comprises of clay, sand and silt. The Punjab region is composed of Indo Gigantic plains. The plain area is located at 180 to 300 meters above the sea level

Area 50,362 sq km
Capital Chandigarh
Languages Punjabi, Hindi
Population (2011) (fig. in persons) 2, 77, 04,236
Religion Hindus (34.46%), Sikhs (62.95%), others (2.59%)
Literacy rate 57.14%
Best Time to Visit October to March
State Bird Baz (Eastern Goshawk)
State Tree Shisham
State Animal Black Buck

Other Important Facts


The state of Punjab is located in the north western part of India and the states that touch the border of Punjab are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.


The geographical parameters of Punjab are latitude 29’30’’ N to 32’32’’ N while longitude being 73’55 E to 76’50 E.


The currency that is used in the state is Indian Rupee.


The climatic conditions in the state can be majorly segregated into three different weathers that are summer, monsoon and winter. The summers are extremely hot and the months of summer are from April to June and the temperature during these months goes up to 110 degree Fahrenheit. The rains in the region fall in the months from July to September and it receives an average rainfall of 96 cms and 58 cms in mountains and plains respectively. The winter months are from October to March where temperature goes low to 40 degree Fahrenheit.


Punjab has the major production of sugarcane all around the state while other agricultural product is indigo that is grown in the lower regions in south of Punjab. These two products are exported majorly to Sindh and Kabul. The other agricultural products grown here are Cotton, wheat, maize, rice, barley and millet while the seeds grown here are sesame, mustard and few other products such as carrots, beans, turnips, vetches, peas, onion, melons and cucumbers.

Salt Resource

The regions of Punjab is also rich in source of salt that ranges from the foot of Sufed Koh that goes to the eastern direction towards Indus while passing through Kalabagh and it ends to the right direction of banks of Jhelum River. The major range consists of streaks of rock-salt, also has dumps of sodium chloride that are created from the frass wacke, it also has limestone and sandstone, gypsum and clay of red tenacious. Other than salt, other minerals that are taken from this range is sulphur and alum.


The use of Persian wheel still persists to fetch water from the well; canals are majorly used for the purpose of irrigation. The spring season is favorable for growing wheat, gram and barley while autumn season is good for Indian corn, cotton, indigo, rice, pulses and sugarcane. The major producers of wheat are Lahore, Jalandhar, Amritsar and Rawalpindi. The cotton is grown majorly in Lahore, Gurgaon, Ambala and Rawalpindi. The cities that are the leading producers of sugar are Sialkot, Jalandhar, Ambala, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh are the cities that grow Indigo. Tea is majorly grown in hilly terrains of Shimla and Kangra.

Fruits of Punjab

Fruits grown here are Mango, orange, apple, peach, apricot, plum, almond, fig and quince.

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