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Classical Music

Classical Music is the art music of Indian subcontinent. Classical Music was originated from the old scriptures in the Hinduism by the name of Vedas. This music is influenced by Indian Folk Music. Indian classical music is expressive as well as elaborate. It has 7 basic tones and 12 semitones. In Punjab, the classical music is originated in two Gharanas i.e. Patiala Gharana and Sham Chaurasia Gharana.

Patiala Gharana

Patiala Gharana is well-known for its incubation of Indian classical music. It was initially sponsored by the Maharaja of the city. The gharana is famous for its rendition of the thumri, ghazals and khyal.

Brought alive by Ustad Fateh Ali khan and Ustad Ali Baksh Khan, Patiala gharana has given us many great musicians. This gharana has given us some famous musicians. They were supported by the royal family of Patiala in 18th century. Members of this gharana commonly choose Ektaal and Teental as their learning Taal.

Sham Chaurasia Gharana

This gharana is a musical heritage gharana in Classical music. It is also well known for the singing of duets in vocal. Today, the famous brothers Salamat Ali Khan and Nazakat Ali Khan represent this gharana. This gharana is placed in a village by the same name in Hoshiarpur in Punjab. It was founded by Mian Chand Khan and Mian Suraj Khan in the 16th century. In the court of Mughal emperor Akbar, they were contemporaries of Mian Tansen.

Features of Classical Music


Flexibility in rhythm adds variety to this classical music. A piece of music in classical form has the advantage of rhythmic patterns, whereas an elaborate piece contains a few patterns that are repeated all the way through.

Elaborate workings communicate a sense of permanence and continuous motion, so that after the first few bars one can forecast pretty well, the musical temperament of a whole movement. The Classical style of Punjabi music also incorporates unanticipated pauses, syncopations, and recurrent changes from long notes to shorter notes. The change from one pattern of note lengths to another may also be unexpected or regular.


In Indian classical music, pieces shift effortlessly or unexpectedly from one texture to another. A work may begin homophonically with a melody and uncomplicated adjunct but then modify to a more multifaceted polyphonic texture that features two instantaneous melodies or harmonious wreckage imitated in the middle of the different instruments.


Classical melodies are amongst the most melodious and easiest to keep in mind. The themes of even highly complicated compositions may contain a folk or well-liked zest. Occasionally, composers simply borrowed accepted tunes. More frequently, on the other hand, they wrote innovative themes with an admired temperament. Classical melodies have a propensity to sound balanced and symmetrical as they are commonly made up of two phrases of the similar duration. The 2nd phrase in such melodies may start like the first, but it ends more decisively.  Such a harmonious type, which may be diagrammed, is easy to sing. Ornate melodies are liable to be less proportioned, more complicated, and harder to sing.


Commonly used instruments in classical music are Tanpura, Tabla, Sarod, Harmonium, Veena, Shehnai, Santoor, Dhol and Algoza.

Tanpura is well known as the mother of all instruments in classical music. It is used to provide background music. Tanpura are made up of old wood and pumpkin. The size of this instrument varies from 1 to 1.5m.

Shehnai is a wind instrument and used to bring good luck and auspiciousness and used in weddings and processions and is commonly used in North India.

Algoza consists of two connected beak flutes out of which one is for melody and other is for drone.

Dhol bear a resemblance to much of the structure of a drum. It is a two-sided drum made up of mango wood, and is played by means of two somewhat curved sticks. It is frequently played throughout impartial occasions and mostly played by only men.

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