Hindi

The language Hindi is famous and popularly known as Madhya language. As central portion of Indo-Aryan civilization, this language happens to be a dialect spoken by those who have descended from Madhya Prakrit, which, has official languages Hindi, as well as, Urdu. Considering an agreement within the study of language of proper Hindi, this language can be further divided into two vernacular sects: Western Hindi as well as Eastern Hindi. Western Hindi is said to be Apabhramsa of Prakrit and Eastern of Amaramagadhi.

Western Hindi

Western Hindi, which is more of an Apabhramsa from Shauraseni Prakrit, consists of


• Braj Bhasha, which is used as a communicative language in Western Uttar Pradesh, Some districts of Haryana and Rajasthan.

• Bangaru or Haryanvi- in Delhi and Haryana.

• Bundelkhandi or Bundel used in Madhya-Pradesh.

• Kannauji, in Western Uttar Pradesh.

• Khari boli forms the basis of Hindustani language with little Urdu and modern Hindi.

• Hindi Spoken in the Eastern India.

• Awadhi, commonly verbal in northern and northern part of central Uttar Pradesh as well as Fiji.

• Bagheli, used in central Uttar Pradesh and northern part of central Madhya Pradesh.

• Chattisgarhi, used in Chattisgarh and Southern Madhya Pradesh.

Hindi has found a huge acceptance worldwide. After English and Mandarin, Hindi is the third most widely-used language around the world. Roughly estimated around 500-600 million people speak Hindi, the language is identical with Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, Bengali, Punjabi and Gujarati. Hindi has also been influenced by other languages like English, Portuguese, Arabic, Farsi, Turkish and Persian etc.

Devanagari Script

Studying Hindi language is quite easy as it has inherited the writing style from Sanskrit. The script is Devanagari which is extremely easy to learn. The pronunciation of the script is really easy as opposed to English, you can pronounce the same way as the alphabets are written. The script can be used both in the rational description and the poetic literary descriptions, as well. This script has no capital or small letters. Devanagari script generally appears as letters hanging from a line. This line can also be found in other South-Asian scripts where they are drawn generally along as the writing proceeds.

History of Hindi Language

Both Hindi and Urdu are the descendants of Hindustani, a colloquial language which was spoken in Delhi and Northern India around the ninth and tenth century. As most of the people speaking this dialect were from the Indus valley civilization, it acquired the name Hindi (Indus was known as Sindh and the language Sindhi which later changed to Hindi).

Hindi is said to have loaned words from Sanskrit to communicate in easy spoken mode and went on to become a separate language altogether in the later course of life. Hindi has also adapted various languages like Persian, Arabic etc. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script while Urdu in Perso-Arabic script.

Famous Works In Hindi Literature

Hindi literature includes literature many parts of the Indo-Aryan languages from the central zone, the ones with writing systems. There are four prominent styles of Hindi literature based on their production time. These are:

Vir-Gathas

These are the poems describing the brave warriors and reigned the period from 11th to 14th century. The literature of this period was developed around the regions of Delhi, Ajmer, Kanauj and stretching to the parts of central India. A very famous composition was by Chand Bardai (1149-c. 1200) called Prithviraaj Raso is considered the first literary work in the total history of Hindi literature. Harsha, Jagnayak, Nalha was some of the famous poets of this era.

Bhakti Poems

The Bhakti era was predominant through 14th century to 18th century and marked its presence with the poets rendering expositions in devotional music. Mallik Muhammad Jayasi composed Padmavat, Tulsidas- Ramcharitamanas are the famous compositions in Avadhi language. Works in Braj bhasha are Vinaya Patrika of Tulsidas and Sur Sagar of Surdasa. There were also some unique forms of poetry formed with the mixture of older forms of poetry in Sanskrit and Persian school. These included patterns of verses like Sortha, Doha (two-liners), Chaypaya (four-liners) etc. There were also the advent of many Muslim Bhakti Poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.

Srngar or Riti Poems

Sringar means decorating one’s self. The poetry and other literary works depicting love as divinity and aesthetics happened through 18th to 20th century mainly, when the era was period saw many poets and other aesthetic composers describing various romantic sagas of life. The period saw the emergence of erotic elements in Hindi literature. Riti meaning ‘ritual’, the era saw the poetic figures with their theory bloom as best. Poets like Bihari, Ghananand Das fit this era perfectly.

Adhunik Literature

The emerging of the modern literature, a trend which continues even today happened from the 20th century onwards. There is not one specific genre where the exponents of literature are delving into. The modern literature encompasses a vast area of research and development recently. The person who is responsible for bringing Hindi prose to realism was Munshi Premchand. Then there was the Dwivedi Yug named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi. Two of the major exponents of this period was Maithili Sharan Gupt and Sridhar Prathak. There was Chayyavaad (shadowism) which evolved with Jaishankar, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Mahadevi Verma and Sumitranandan Pant. Apart from these, there are numerous schools of poetry that emerged in the 1950’s coordinating various disciplines of human knowledge like art, culture, history and philosophy. There were also some monumental works in Hindi travel literature by people like Rahul Sanskrityayan, Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan, Sachhidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan ‘Ajneya’ etc.

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